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What is an IIA?

An IIA (also commonly called "bilateral investment treaty ("BIT") when used in a bilateral context, or "investment guarantee agreement ("IGA")) promotes greater investment flows between two signatory countries and sets out standards of protection for investments made in one country by investors from the other country.

An IIA contains obligations on the host State, which may include:
  • Treating foreign investors as favourably as domestic investors or foreign investors from other countries;
  • Treating foreign investors fairly and equitably, as well as giving them protection and security;
  • Establishing clear limits on the expropriation of investments and compensating foreign investors should expropriation occur;
  • Allowing foreign investors to freely transfer their capital in and out of the host State; and
  • Allowing foreign investors to submit investment disputes to international arbitration.

The table below provides details on Singapore's IIAs which are already in force (orange areas in the map below).
 
IIAMap3.png
No. Countries Date of Entry into Force IIA Text Remarks
1 ASEAN 29 Mar 2012 EN
ASEAN IGA and the AIA agreement were terminated when ACIA* entered into force on 29 Mar 2012. 
 
There are also Investment chapters/ agreements covering the ASEAN Member States in the following FTAs: AANZFTA, ACFTAAKFTA* and AIFTA. They also contain provisions on investment promotion.
2 Bahrain* 8 Dec 2004 EN
3 Bangladesh* 19 Nov 2004 EN
4 Belarus*
13 Jan 2001 
EN
5 Belgium and Luxembourg* 27 Nov 1980 EN
6 Bulgaria* 10 Feb 2006 EN
7 Cambodia* 24 Feb 2000 EN Cambodia is also a Party to ACIA*,AANZFTAACFTA andAKFTA*. 
8 Canada* 30 Jul 1971 EN
9 China* 7 Feb 1986 EN There is an Investment agreement in ACFTA; and also an Investment Chapter in the CSFTA.
10 Czech Republic* 7 Oct 1995 EN
11 DPRK (Democratic People's Republic of Korea)* 18 Mar 2009 EN
12 Egypt* 20 Mar 2002 EN
13 France* 18 Oct 1976 EN
14 Germany* 1 Oct 1975 EN
15 Hungary* 1 Jan 1999 EN
16 Iran 28 Feb 2018 EN
17 Jordan 22 Aug 2005 EN
18 Kuwait* 15 Apr 2013 EN
19 Laos* 26 Mar 1998
EN Laos is also a Party to ACIA*,AANZFTAACFTA andAKFTA*. 
20 Latvia* 18 Mar 1999 EN
21 Libya 22 Dec 2011 EN
22 Mauritius* 19 Apr 2000 EN
23 Mexico 3 Apr 2011 EN
24 Mongolia* 7 Jan 1996  EN
25 Netherlands* 7 Sep 1973 EN
26 Oman* 12 Oct 2008 EN
27 Pakistan* 4 May 1995 EN
28 Poland* 29 Dec 1993 EN
29 Qatar 25 Apr 2018 EN
30 Russia 16 Jun 2012 EN
31 Saudi Arabia* 5 Oct 2007 EN
32 Slovak Republic* 6 Jun 2007 EN
33 Slovenia* 8 Sep 2000 EN
34 Sri Lanka* 30 Sep 1980 EN
35 Switzerland* 3 May 1978 EN Switzerland is also a Party to the ESFTA, which includes an Investment Chapter.  
36 Turkey 27 Mar 2010 EN There is an existing Investment Chapter in TRSFTA.
37 Ukraine* 14 Jul 2007 EN
38 United Kingdom* 22 Jul 1975 EN
39 United States 25 Mar 1966 EN There is an existing Investment Chapter in USSFTA.
40 Uzbekistan* 23 Nov 2003 EN
41 United Arab Emirates 8 Apr 2012 EN
42 Vietnam* 25 Dec 1992 EN Vietnam is also a Party to ACIA*,AANZFTAACFTAAKFTA* and AIFTA

Indonesia* 21 Jun 2006 EN
The BIT has expired on 20 June 2016.
Indonesia is also a Party to ACIA*,AANZFTAACFTA andAKFTA*. 

Singapore has signed agreements with Colombia, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria and Rwanda (green areas in the map above), but these agreements are not yet in force. You may write in to MTI (mti_email@mti.gov.sg) if you have enquiries about these agreements.

Investment Chapters in FTAs generally go beyond the scope of BITs/IGAs and include other elements such as investment liberalisation and investment facilitation.

This separate table lists Singapore's FTA Investment Chapters. You may also access the other chapters of these FTAs via Singapore's FTA Website.

 

No. FTAs Date of Entry into Force
Investment 
Chapter
Remarks
1 Singapore-Australia Free Trade Agreement
 (SAFTA)
28 Jul 2003
EN The amendments from the 3rd Review entered into force on 1 December 2017.
2 ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Agreement (ACIA)* 29 Mar 2012 EN
 
3 ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Area (AANZFTA) 1 Jan 2010 EN
4 ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) 15 Feb 2010 EN

5 China-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (CSFTA) 1 Jan 2009 EN It has an Investment Chapter that incorporates that of ACFTA.
6 ASEAN-India Free Trade Area (AIFTA) 1 Jul 2015 EN
7 ASEAN-Korea Free Trade Area (AKFTA)* 2 Jun 2009 EN
8 Singapore-Costa Rica FTA (SCRFTA) 1 Jul 2013 EN
9 India-Singapore Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) 1 Aug 2005 EN The 1st Review was concluded on 1 November 2007.
10 Japan-Singapore Economic Partnership Agreement (JSEPA) 30 Nov 2002 EN The 2nd Review was concluded on 19 March 2007.
11 Korea-Singapore FTA (KSFTA) 2 Mar 2006 EN
12 New Zealand-Singapore Comprehensive Economic Partnership (ANZSCEP) 1 Jan 2001 EN
13 Panama-Singapore FTA (PSFTA)
24 Jul 2006 EN
14 Peru-Singapore FTA (PeSFTA)
1 Aug 2009
EN
15 EFTA-Singapore FTA (ESFTA) 1 Jan 2003
EN
Countries from EFTA are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.
16 Sri Lanka-Singapore FTA (SLSFTA) 1 May 2018 EN
17 Turkey-Singapore FTA (TRSFTA) 1 Oct 2017 EN
18 United States-Singapore FTA (USSFTA) 1 Jan 2004 EN
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