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What is an IIA?

An IIA (also commonly called "bilateral investment treaty ("BIT") when used in a bilateral context, or "investment guarantee agreement ("IGA")) promotes greater investment flows between two signatory countries and sets out standards of protection for investments made in one country by investors from the other country.

An IIA contains obligations on the host State, which may include:

  • Treating foreign investors as favourably as domestic investors or foreign investors from other countries;
  • Treating foreign investors fairly and equitably, as well as giving them protection and security;
  • Establishing clear limits on the expropriation of investments and compensating foreign investors should expropriation occur;
  • Allowing foreign investors to freely transfer their capital in and out of the host State; and
  • Allowing foreign investors to submit investment disputes to international arbitration.
IIAs are not the same as Investment Chapters in FTAs, which generally go beyond the scope of IIAs and include other elements such as investment liberalisation and investment facilitation.

The table below provides details on Singapore's IIAs which are already in force.

No.

Countries

Date of Entry into Force

IIA Text

Remarks

1

ASEAN

2 Aug 1988

EN

The ASEAN IGA was terminated when ACIA entered into force on 29 Mar 2012.

 

The ASEAN Member States are parties to the following FTAs with Investment Chapters (which also contain provisions on investment promotion):

· AANZFTA

· ACFTA

· AKFTA

· AIFTA

 

2

Bahrain

8 Dec 2004

EN

 

3

Bangladesh

19 Nov 2004

EN

 

4

Belarus

13 Jan 2001

EN

 

5

Belgium and Luxembourg

27 Nov 1980

EN

 

6

Bulgaria

10 Feb 2006

EN

 

7

Cambodia

24 Feb 2000

EN

Cambodia is also a Party to the following FTAs with Investment Chapters:

· ACIA

· AANZFTA

· ACFTA

· AKFTA

 

8

Canada

30 Jul 1971

EN

Canada is also a Party to the following FTA with an Investment Chapter:

· CPTPP

 

9

China

7 Feb 1986

EN

The China-Singapore BIT was terminated and replaced by the CSFTA Investment Chapter when the CSFTA upgrade took effect on 16 October 2019.

 

China is also a Party to the following FTA with an Investment Chapter:

· ACFTA

 

10

Czech Republic

7 Oct 1995

EN

 

11

DPRK (Democratic People's Republic of Korea)

18 Mar 2009

EN

 

12

Egypt

20 Mar 2002

EN

 

13

France

18 Oct 1976

EN

 

14

Germany

1 Oct 1975

EN

 

15

Hungary

1 Jan 1999

EN

 

16

Indonesia

9 Mar 2021

EN

Indonesia is also a Party to the following FTAs with Investment Chapters:

· ACIA

· AANZFTA

· ACFTA

· AKFTA

 

17

Iran

28 Feb 2018

EN

 

18

Jordan

22 Aug 2005

EN

 

19

Kuwait

15 Apr 2013

EN

 

20

Laos

26 Mar 1998

EN

Laos is also a Party to the following FTAs with Investment Chapters:

· ACIA

· AANZFTA

· ACFTA

· AKFTA

 

21

Latvia

18 Mar 1999

EN

 

22

Libya

22 Dec 2011

EN

 

23

Mauritius

19 Apr 2000

EN

 

24

Mexico

3 Apr 2011

EN

Mexico is also a Party to the following FTA with an Investment Chapter:

· CPTPP

 

25

Mongolia

7 Jan 1996

EN

 

26

Myanmar

9 Oct 2020

 

EN

 

Myanmar is also a Party to the following FTAs with Investment Chapters:

· ACIA

· AANZFTA

· ACFTA

· AKFTA

 

27

Netherlands

7 Sep 1973

EN

 

28

Oman

12 Oct 2008

EN

 

29

Pakistan

4 May 1995

EN

 

30

Poland

29 Dec 1993

EN

 

31

Qatar

25 Apr 2018

EN

 

32

Russia

16 Jun 2012

EN

 

33

Rwanda

16 Oct 2020

 

EN

 

 

34

Saudi Arabia

5 Oct 2007

EN

 

35

Slovak Republic

6 Jun 2007

EN

 

36

Slovenia

8 Sep 2000

EN

 

37

Switzerland

3 May 1978

EN

Switzerland is also a Party to the following FTA with an Investment Chapter:

· ESFTA

 

38

Ukraine

14 Jul 2007

EN

 

39

United Kingdom

22 Jul 1975

EN

 

40

United States

25 Mar 1966

EN

The United States is also a Party to the following FTA with an Investment Chapter:

· USSFTA

 

41

Uzbekistan

23 Nov 2003

EN

 

42

United Arab Emirates

8 Apr 2012

EN

 

43

Vietnam

25 Dec 1992

EN

Vietnam is also a Party to the following FTAs with Investment Chapters:

· ACIA

· AANZFTA

· ACFTA

· AKFTA

 

 

The table below lists Singapore's FTA Investment Chapters. You may also access the other chapters of these FTAs via Enterprise Singapore's FTA webpage.

No.

FTAs

Date of Entry into Force

Investment

Chapter

Remarks

1

Singapore-Australia Free Trade Agreement

(SAFTA)

28 Jul 2003

EN

The amendments from the 3rd Review entered into force on 1 December 2017.

2

ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Agreement (ACIA)

29 Mar 2012

EN

 

3

ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Area (AANZFTA)

1 Jan 2010

EN

 

4

ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA)

15 Feb 2010

EN

 

5

China-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (CSFTA)

1 Jan 2009

EN

The CSFTA Upgrade Protocol entered into force on 16 Oct 2019.

 

6

Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP)

30 Dec 2018

EN             

 

7

ASEAN-India Free Trade Area (AIFTA)

1 Jul 2015

EN

 

8

ASEAN-Korea Free Trade Area (AKFTA)

2 Jun 2009

EN

 

9

Singapore-Costa Rica FTA (SCRFTA)

1 Jul 2013

EN

 

10

India-Singapore Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA)

1 Aug 2005

EN

The 1st Review was concluded on 1 November 2007.

11

Japan-Singapore Economic Partnership Agreement (JSEPA)

30 Nov 2002

EN

The 2nd Review was concluded on 19 March 2007.

12

Korea-Singapore FTA (KSFTA)

2 Mar 2006

EN

 

13

New Zealand-Singapore Comprehensive Economic Partnership (ANZSCEP)

1 Jan 2001

 

EN

 

 

The ANZSCEP Upgrade entered into force on 1 Jan 2020.

14

Panama-Singapore FTA (PSFTA)

24 Jul 2006

EN

 

15

Peru-Singapore FTA (PeSFTA)

1 Aug 2009

EN

 

16

EFTA-Singapore FTA (ESFTA)

1Jan 2003

EN

Countries from EFTA are Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

17

Sri Lanka-Singapore FTA (SLSFTA)

1 May 2018

EN

 

18

Turkey-Singapore FTA (TRSFTA)

1 Oct 2017

EN

 

19

United States-Singapore FTA (USSFTA)

1 Jan 2004

EN

 

20

ASEAN-Hong Kong Investment Agreement (AHKIA)

17 Jun 2019

EN             

AHKIA entered into force for Singapore, Hong Kong, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam on 17 June 2019; for Malaysia on 13 October 2019; Philippines on 12 May 2020; Indonesia on 4 July 2020; and Brunei on 20 Oct 2020.

21

ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership (AJCEP)

 

1 Dec 2008

EN             

The amendments from the AJCEP First Protocol entered into force for Japan, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam on 1 Aug 2020 and Brunei on 1 Oct 2020.

 


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